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Owing to absence of the gylcerol side-streams, investment costs are appr.
Clive Richardson. Hi sir This is Siddeshwara from India, m M. Sc Chemistry and i have so much interested and having curiosity about biofuel.
Because in India so much polluted it only because of using petrofuel and ofcourse the same thing is happen in other countries also. Lila Guterman June 25, AM. Hi Siddeshwara, thank you for the comment. If you would like further information, please review the Environ. Or if you are responding to Clive Richardson's comment, please contact him directly. Thanks again for your interest! Most popular. This protocol describes a quantitative 31 P NMR spectroscopy approach for the analysis and determination of hydroxyl groups on biorefinery resources such as lignins and tannins.leondumoulin.nl/language/math/cable-1993-2002-15.php
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Research Highlights 11 October Research Highlights 02 July Oleaginous yeasts grown on biomass sustainably produce high yields of triglycerides for use in foods and fuels. News and Views 10 June Photocatalytic H 2 production using semiconductors is a promising approach to store solar energy as a chemical fuel, but the oxidizing power of the excited holes is often wasted. Now, holes are harnessed in a dehydrocoupling strategy that simultaneously produces H 2 and diesel fuel precursors from biomass-derived molecules. News and Views 13 May A significant portion of the energy required to electrochemically reduce CO 2 to fuels and chemicals is typically consumed by the accompanying oxygen evolution reaction.
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Now, researchers show that alternative oxidative reactions using biodiesel-waste could improve the economics and emission profiles of this process. Research Highlights 04 April News and Views 14 December Biofuels became controversial for compromising food production. However, it has unexpected implications across the Sustainable Development Goals.
Skip to main content. Search My Account Login. As first generation biofuels are not viable and receive lukewarm reception, researchers focused on second generation biofuels. The primary intention here is to produce biofuels using lignocellulosic biomass, the woody part of plants which do not compete with human food chain directly . As shown in Fig. However, converting the woody biomass into fermentable sugars requires sophisticated and expensive technologies for the pre-treatment with special enzymes making second generation biofuels economically not profitable for commercial production [2, 4].
Hence, the focus of research is drawn to third generation biofuels. The main component of third generation biofuels is microalgae as shown in Fig. It is currently considered to be a feasible alternative renewable energy resource for biofuel production overcoming the disadvantages of first and second generation biofuels [1- 2, 5, 16]. The potential for biodiesel production from microalgae is 15 to times more than traditional crops on an area basis .
Furthermore compared with conventional crop plants which are usually harvested once or twice a year, microalgae possess a very short harvesting cycle 1 to 10 days depending on the process , allowing multiple or continuous harvesting with significantly increased yields [2, 15]. Additionally, the microalgae generally have higher productivity than land based plants as some species have doubling times of a few hours and accumulate very large amounts of triacylglycerides TAGs.
Most importantly, the high quality agricultural land is not required for microalgae biomass production . Microalgae are single-cell microscopic organisms which are naturally found in fresh water and marine environment. Their position is at the bottom of food chains.
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Microalgae are considered to be one of the oldest living organisms in our planet. There are more than , species of micro algae, diversity of which is much greater than plants . They are thallophytes - plants lacking roots, stems, and leaves that have chlorophyll as their primary photosynthetic pigment and lack a sterile covering of cells around the reproductive cells . While the mechanism of photosynthesis in these microorganisms is similar to that of higher plants, microalgae are generally more efficient converters of solar energy thanks to their simple cellular structure.
Bioethanol in the Philippines (Research Paper) | Biofuel | Food Security
In addition, because the cells grow in aqueous suspension, they have more efficient access to water, CO2, and other nutrients [2, 5]. Generally, microalgae are classified in accordance with their colours. The current systems of classification of microalgae are based on a kinds of pigments, b chemical nature of storage products, and c cell wall constituents .
Some additional criteria are also taken into consideration including cytological and morphological characters: occurrence of flagellate cells, structure of the flagella, scheme and path of nuclear and cell division, presence of an envelope of endoplasmic reticulum around the chloroplast, and possible connection between the endoplasmic reticulum and the nuclear membrane .
Some major groups of microalgae are shown Table 1. The oil contents of various microalgae in relation to their dry weight are shown in Table 2.
As mentioned earlier, some microalgae can double their biomasses within 24 hours and the shortest doubling time during their growth is around 3. The production of microalgae biomass for extraction of biofuels is generally more expensive and technologically challenging than growing crops. Photosynthetic growth of microalgae requires light, CO2, water and inorganic salts. The temperature regime needs to be controlled strictly. In order to reduce the cost, the biodiesel production must rely on freely available sunlight, despite daily and seasonal variations in natural light levels [7, ]. A number of ways the microalgae biomass can be converted into energy sources which includes: a biochemical conversion, b chemical reaction, c direct combustion, and d thermochemical conversion.
Depending on the microalgae species other compounds may also be extracted, with valuable applications in different industrial sectors, including a large range of fine chemicals and bulk products, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, natural dyes, polysaccharides, pigments, antioxidants, high-value bioactive compounds, and proteins [2, 8, 10, ].
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There are different ways microalgae can be cultivated. However, two widely used cultivation systems are the open air system and photobioreactor system. The photoreactor system can be sub-classified as a tabular photoreactor, b flat photoreactor, and c column photoreactor.
Each system has relative advantages and disadvantages. More details about these cultivation systems can be found in [, 7]. The production of biofuel is a complex process. A schematic of biofuel production processes from microalgae is shown in Figure 3.