- The Evolution of Golf Course Design
- Well-managed courses offer better habitat than some farm and park ponds.
- Sociability, Golf Courses, and the Performance of Institutional Investors
Bilaterally, the pectoralis muscles are the most active muscles, being the major movers of the shoulder girdle. There is continuation of the right side activity seen during the early downswing, while the left pectoralis appears to maintain an eccentric contraction to control the left arm abduction and external rotation. The muscles involved in scapular movement are also active: the upper serratus on the right to protract the scapula and the levator scapulae on the left side to aid scapular tilting [ 14 — 18 ].
Just prior to impact there is a large increase in wrist flexor muscle activation; what has been termed the 'flexor burst' [ 11 , 19 , 20 ]. Part of this activity is to return the wrists back thus club head back to a position to hit the ball, the 'uncocking' of the wrists. The early follow-through of the golf swing occurs after ball impact and is the phase where deceleration of trunk rotation occurs. There is a 'rolling' of the forearms at impact that is continued into the early follow-through.
This results in left arm supination and right arm pronation followed by left arm external rotation and right arm internal rotation. Bilaterally, the pectoralis major muscles continue to be very active. The active muscles in the shoulder during this phase are the right subscapularis and the left infraspinatus to control the movement seen in the follow-through [ 14 — 18 ]. In the late follow-through, the muscle activity decreases as the golfer nears the end of the swing. The most active muscles in this phase are similar to the early follow-through, but with a lesser degree of activity.
The only exception in the upper body is the right serratus anterior, which is more active in this phase as it aids in the protraction of the scapular around the trunk [ 14 — 18 ].
The Evolution of Golf Course Design
The wrist is one of the most common sites of injury in golfers [ 3 , 4 ]. During the golf swing, the wrist is the anchor point between the club and the body. This results in the wrist displaying a large range of motion [ 19 , 20 ]. Wrist injuries commonly occur at the impact point of the golf swing and may result from hitting an object other than the ball.
The injury is the result of the sudden change in load applied to the club, and subsequently the golfer, resulting in tissue disruption to the hands and wrist. This commonly occurs in amateurs due to hitting the ball 'fat' i. Professionals also sustain wrist injuries but these injuries usually occur in slightly different circumstances. The professional or amateur may hit an obscured rock whilst playing from 'the rough' longer grass that borders the shorter grass of the fairway, the central area that is preferable to hit from.
In many major tournaments, particularly "links" courses commonly seen in the United Kingdom, the rough tends to be thick. Whilst attempting to extricate the ball, the long strands of grass tend to wrap themselves around the hosel that part of the club that joins the shaft to the club head and shaft of the club. This results in a similar deceleration of the club head during the downswing as hitting the ground, which lends itself to injury. Injury may be either acute where enough force is produced to cause excessive soft tissue elongation in a single swing, or by way of repetitive microtrauma if repeated many times in a short timeframe.
Injuries of this nature tend to occur at the hand and wrist but can also occur at the elbow. Muscular strains particularly the flexor carpi ulnaris [FCU] and ligamentous strains are common [ 21 , 22 ], but fractures of the hook of hamate may also occur due to this mechanism [ 23 ]. Overuse injuries to the wrist are also common and are due mainly to repetitive wrist movement during practice or from alteration to the swing that results in stress to unaccustomed areas. This is contrary to the statistics produced in golf epidemiology studies. A reason for this difference could be differing definitions of what an injury is in each study.
The Spanish study found that overuse or sudden changes in swing were the common injury mechanisms, and the FCU was the most common site of injury [ 21 ].
Tendonopathy, or more specifically tendonosis has replaced tendonitis as the clinical descriptor of the overuse syndrome [ 24 , 25 ]. The primary reason for this change is due to the majority of overuse tendonopathies displaying collagen degeneration and fibre disorientation. However they do not display the presence of inflammatory cells [ 24 ], hence the "itis" is inaccurate. The injury mechanism is either a sudden increase in the volume of practice or alteration of the grip causing increased loading on an unaccustomed part of the wrist , and then subsequent practice [ 26 ].
Onset of the pain is gradual. It tends to have a persistent nature until any aggravating factor s are modified or adequate repair healing time elapses [ 24 — 26 ]. The FCU of the right wrist in right-handed golfers is vulnerable to injury from microtrauma due to the large forces produced by the swing just prior to impact. This is particularly true when golfers take divots hit the ground [ 26 ]. As the club hits the ground, a sudden resistance occurs that loads the flexor tendon.
If the forces are great enough microtrauma can occur, which combined with repetition through practice may lead to injury. Injury to the FCU results in pain at the proximal border of the trapezium and is increased with wrist flexion. In the presence of a faulty swing style, the beginner is also susceptible to extensor carpi ulnaris ECU injury [ 26 ]. Commonly, the beginner 'casts' the club in the early downswing the early uncocking of the wrist during the downswing and a source of lost power and control , which loads the ECU [ 26 ]. Beginners are often overenthusiastic in their practice in an endeavour to improve their game.
This may result in repetitive loading, microtrauma and injury to the ECU. A sign of ECU injury includes ulnar wrist pain with tenderness of the dorsal base of the ulnar styloid where the ECU runs through the sixth dorsal compartment.
There is often pain on resisted supination and on ulnar deviation in this instance. An uncommon injury seen in golfers is a fracture to the hook of hamate. Hamate fractures may be acute in nature due to the impingement of the hamate between the hand and the butt end of the club, leading to a fracture in the leading hand the left hamate in a right-handed golfer [ 23 ]. The literature records acute hamate fractures in golfers as early as [ 23 ]. Stress fractures of the hamate may also occur due to a sudden change in grip positioning or strength with accompanying excessive practice [ 27 ].
The ulnar border of the wrist is the site of pain for hamate fractures, with hamate tenderness and positive percussion being an indication for imaging. Care must be taken, however, as x-rays may initially not reveal the fracture [ 28 ]. Bone scans or MR imaging will show the fracture. Other unusual golf-related injuries to the wrist and surrounding structures have also been reported in the literature. These include a case of an amateur golfer with a compression neuropathy of the median nerve in the right palm due to mechanical compression of the median nerve in the right palm by the head of the first metacarpal bone of the left hand [ 29 ].
Well-managed courses offer better habitat than some farm and park ponds.
Extensor carpi ulnaris ECU tendon dislocation over the ulnar dorsal ridge of the ulnar head aggravated by excessive practice has also been reported [ 30 ]. This case was resolved by extensor retinaculum release and partial ulnar head resection after conservative therapy failed.
The unusual "hypothenar hammer syndrome" has also been reported in a golfer due to the repetitive hitting of practice balls with a 'faulty' grip causing repeated pressure on the ulnar artery underlying the hypothenar eminence. This practice resulted in thrombus formation in the ulnar artery [ 31 ].
While unusual, putting grip alterations have resulted in pain to the volar radial wrist due to a flexor carpi radialis strain. It was reported that this was accentuated by palpation and that a return to the original grip with manual therapy resolved the condition [ 32 ]. Elbow injuries are common in golfers, especially in amateurs and particularly in females.kinun-houju.com/wp-content/zofoxira/3716.php
Sociability, Golf Courses, and the Performance of Institutional Investors
This is thought to be due to the increased carrying angle seen in the female population [ 3 ]. Ironically, lateral elbow injuries are more common, at a rate of when compared to medial elbow injuries including the so-called Golfer's elbow [ 2 ].
Medial elbow injuries are thought to result from traction-based insults to the elbow, usually to the trailing arm right elbow in the right-handed golfer. These injuries are usually of a traumatic nature and occur at the time of impact. The mechanism is a sudden deceleration of the club head, leading to an increased loading of the medial elbow. This can be due to hitting obscured rocks and tree roots, and in professionals trying to hit repeatedly out of long and thick rough. With amateurs, the hitting of a 'fat' shot is the more likely mechanism. Signs of medial epicondylitis Golfer's elbow include pain and tenderness to palpation of the medial epicondyle.
Pain is often aggravated by resisted forearm flexion and forearm pronation. There may be trigger point referral along the radial border of the forearm into the dorsum of the hand. Gripping the club too tightly during the swing causing associated extensor eccentric contraction or changes to the grip with subsequent practice often fatigue-based may result in changes in forearm musculature forces and are potentially a source of lateral epicondylitis.
Signs of lateral epicondylitis include pain and tenderness to palpation of the lateral epicondyle. Pain is often aggravated by resisted forearm extension and on occasions gripping objects or shaking hands. There may be trigger point referral along the ulnar border of the forearm into the palmar aspect of the hand. Excessive practice may also result in injury to the lateral elbow.
The large increase in flexor activity just prior to impact, the 'flexor burst' [ 11 ] accompanied by the rapid wrist movement at the same time places a large stress on the elbow joint and may result in injury due to accumulating microscopic damage [ 34 ]. Economic literature: papers , articles , software , chapters , books.
Allen Florida Gulf Coast University.
Considerable prior research confirms the existence of real estate price premiums associated with golf course amenities in residential development projects. In this development project, golf memberships can only be obtained or disposed of by acquiring or selling the associated dwelling, respectively.
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The results of this analysis indicates that price premiums associated with appurtenant golf memberships, after controlling for golf course view and other relevant property characteristics, are significantly positive. Furthermore, the results indicate that the magnitude of the price premium for appurtenant golf memberships varies across dwelling types detached vs.
This is true of golf, with reports of dwindling numbers of juniors This is true of golf, with reports of dwindling numbers of juniors in clubs, especially girls.